A free glossary of oncology-related terms and resource organizations.
Why use a resource like nm|OK?
Unlike reports that are 'dead on arrival' nm|OK is a constantly updated comprehensive report on every aspect of oncology drug development. click
Drugs profiled in nm|OK
nm|OK profiles over 4,310 drugs/in vivo imaging agents in development:
3,653 anticancer agents addressing over 100 cancer types and thousands of clinical indications. Of these, 1,695 are in active development; 821 have been or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and 539 of these are targeted agents.
757 drugs for the management of complications of cancer and its treatment (pain, infection, mucositis, emesis, etc.)
nm|OK also profiles over 552 marketed drugs (anticancer agents=335, adjuncts=197) globally, providing trial results from monotherapy and combination therapy trials.
In vitro testing (IVT) products
nm|OK profiles over 200 companies and hundreds of products (screening tests, diagnostics, pharmacogenomics, prognostics, disease monitoring tests, theragnostics, etc.) in the in vitro testing area in oncology.
Enabling technologies/drug delivery
nm|OK describes hundreds of technology platforms used to discover, evaluate, optimize, and or deliver anticancer agents such as cytotoxics, synthetic nucleic acid sequences, small molecule drugs, monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, etc.
Targets in oncology
nm|OK describes over 1,000 molecular moieties that may be target candidates of anticancer strategies or used as in vitro testing markers.
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The headlines below refer to selected records among the hundreds updated in nm|OK within a 30-day period. A summary of the updated information, the complete records for each item on the list, and numerous other updated entries are available to subscribers upon logging in. Samples of records from each module are here.
Special reports are reviews of current developments of oncology and related drugs by indication, mechanism, delivery technology, etc. as well as personalized medicine, including biomarkers, diagnostics, theragnostics, prognostics, pharmacogenomics, disease monitoring tests, etc. Samples of special reports are here.
Pelareorep Reolysin, Reovirus type 3 Dearing (RT3D)
Camptothecin IT-101, CRLX101
Telotristat etiprate LX1032, LX1606
ImMucin, MUC1-SP-L, VXL100
ADXS-HPV, ADXS11-001, Lm-LLO-E7
Melphalan HCl Captisol-enabled melphalan, CE-melphalan, CDX-353
Tivozanib AV-951, formerly KRN951
BKT-140, BTK140, BL-8040
Rilimogene galvacirepvec/rilimogene glafolivec
MUC1 dendritic cell vaccine, CVac, mannan-MUC1 fusion protein (M-FP)
Jakafi (USA), Jakavi (Europe)
MicroRNA 34a (MIR34A)
Metformin in Combination with Plk1 Inhibitor BI2536 in the Treatment of Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer
There is increasing evidence that the antidiabetic metformin exerts strong antineoplastic effects on numerous tumor types, including prostate cancer. Additionally, it helps to lower the risk of developing castration-resistant prostate cancer. Investigators at Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN) and colleagues report that inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) with BI2536 enhances the antineoplastic activity of low dose metformin in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Plk1 can trigger the synthesis of androgen. BI2536, a specific Plk1 inhibitor, acts synergistically with metformin in inhibiting prostate cancer cell proliferation and also renders prostate cancer cells harboring wild type p53 much more sensitive to treatment with low dose metformin. The combination of BI2536 and metformin induced p53-dependent apoptosis and further activated the p53/Redd-1 pathway. (more...)
England's National Cancer Drugs Fund Removes 25 Cancer Indications Involving 16 Separate Drugs from its FY16 Covered List
In January 2015, the CDF removed 25 cancer treatment indications involving 16 separate agents from its annual funding list beginning on March 15, 2015. The fund exceeded its budget by ~ £100 million in FY15. This decision eliminates ~ £80 million ($121.3 million) from the FY16 budget for these indications which is nevertheless increased to £340 million in FY16, with its mandate ending on March 15, 2016. In addition the CDF rejected outright another 33 indications involving 19 separate approved anticancer agents. The CDF covered list now includes 62 approved indications. The most telling aspect of the removals is the incredible variety of highly specific indications, some approved and others off label, associated with these drugs that illustrate the complexity of this disease. In addition to the basic cancer type, the clinical indications specify disease stage, biomarker expression, line of treatment often specifying previous exposure by agent, performance status, distinct agent combinations, etc. Each of these specific indications has been evaluated in clinical trials providing the regulators with base line information as to their cost effectiveness. (more...)
Speeding the Time it Takes to Evaluate Novel Anticancer Treatments: the I-SPY-2 Adaptive Clinical Trial
Clinical evaluation of novel anticancer agents/treatments routinely takes over 10 years and costs nearly $1 billion. Currently, numerous agents are in development for even longer lengths of time. This situation prompted the rethinking of how to evaluate the results of clinical trials in real time rather than wait until the trial’s conclusion. In this approach, referred to as adoptive design, the effectiveness of a treatment addressing a narrow clinical indication selected on validated science, is evaluated in a small patient population in real time using statistical techniques (Barker AD, etal, Clin Pharmacol Ther, Jul 2009;86(1):97-100) based on a Bayesian model to identify regimens with ≥85% predictive probability of success. In this manner, a decision can be quickly arrived at as to the treatment’s effectiveness. The first attempt to employ this approach is represented by the I-SPY 2 TRIAL (Investigation of Serial studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging And moLecular analysis 2), a phase II clinical trial (protocol ID: 097517; NCT01042379) in women with newly diagnosed locally advanced breast cancer to test whether adding investigational drugs to standard chemotherapy is better than standard chemotherapy alone in the neoadjuvant setting (http://www.ispy2.org). In this trial, various agents are used to treat a small number of patients with several types of breast cancer in the adjuvant setting to determine which are most effective in which patient based on disease characteristics and biomarker expression. The trial’s primary endpoint is pathologic complete response (pCR). The trial employs a rigorous patient profile based on the biology of each participant’s tumor and the outcome of each participant who completes treatment is used to decide treatment for women who subsequently join the trial. Drugs that provide a benefit are then entered into late stage evaluation.
The Incredible Complexity of Drug Development and Personalized Medicine in Oncology-Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is only one of the hundreds of distinct types of cancer. It accounts for about 15% to 25% of all cases of breast cancer. TNBC, characterized by a lack of expression of the hormone receptors for estrogen and progesterone and HEr2, is an aggressive form of breast cancer with no effective treatment options. The severity of the disease and the commercial opportunity for an effective treatment that rivals the $1.5 billion market for Herceptin in triple positive breast cancer, has intensified research in this area. Most novel agents in TNBC are in early clinical development with no standouts having emerged to date. (more...)
Inhibition of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Pathway for the Treatment of Cancer
The success of Avastin, an antiangiogenesis agent targeting the VEGF pathway, has prompted the development of numerous similarly acting agents. Avastin, with global revenues of $6,210.5 million in fiscal 2010, is the most commercially successful anticancer drug ever to reach the market. Future Oncology has published a review of VEGF inhibition in the treatment of cancer. (more...)
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